VITAL STATISTICS FORMULAS                                                        
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
   (crude) live birth rate =                     1,000       X              number of live births                
                                                                                 population                             
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
   (crude) death rate =                          1,000       X                number of deaths                   
                                                                                 population                             
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
   (crude) marriage rate =                       1,000       X               number of marriages                 
                                                                                 population                             
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
   (crude) divorce rate =                        1,000       X          number of divorces & annulments          
                                                                                 population                             
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
   cause-specific mortality rate =             100,000       X          number of deaths from the cause          
                                                                                 population                             
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
   maternal mortality rate =                   100,000       X             number of deaths attributed                  
                                                                             to maternal conditions              
                                                                             number of live births                      
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
   neonatal mortality rate =                     1,000       X         number of deaths under age 28 days        
                                                                             number of live births                      
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
   postneonatal mortality rate =                 1,000       X          number of deaths age 28 days or                 
                                                                          more and less than one year            
                                                                              number of live births                     
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
   infant mortality rate =                       1,000       X               number of deaths under                     
                                                                                age of one year                  
                                                                              number of live births                     
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
   fetal mortality rate =                        1,000       X        number of fetal deaths (stillbirths)       
                                                                      number of fetal deaths (stillbirths)              
                                                                                plus live births                        
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
   induced abortion ratio =                        100       X            number of induced abortions            
                                                                             number of live births                      
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
   percentage live births to unmarried women =     100       X           number of children born alive                  
                                                                               to unmarried women                
                                                                             number of live births                      
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
   percentage low birth weight =                   100       X          number of children born alive of                
                                                                          weight less than 2,500 grams                  
                                                                                  (5 1/2 pounds)                 
                                                                            number of live births of                    
                                                                                   all weights                          
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                        
   Note:  Crude marriage and divorce rates are tabulated using occurrence data rather than residence data.              
          Race-specific rates/percents/ratios use the same formula as above, except that both numerator                 
          and denominator are for the stated race.